The Village

By Kathryn Powell

History | Student Influence | Village Promenade | Corporate Influence | University Projects| Gallery
“The Village is a ‘stepchild’ that belongs to neither the university nor the city.”
Gail Koch, Muncie Star Press, April 17, 2005

The Village is a traditional hub of commercial activity near Ball State University and a buffer zone between the campus bubble and the Muncie community. Sitting at a shop window, one can see students walking home to the adjacent neighborhood or entering The Village Promenade, an upscale apartment complex dwarfing the other one-story shops. Others—professors, locals, and students alike—maneuver tight sidewalks to meet with friends at The Cup or grab lunch at a fast food chain. Though daytime business can be slow, The Village comes alive at night. Students released from class and homework obligations congregate at Insomnia Cookies, Let’s Spoon Frozen Yogurt, and Two Cats Café. Later, the bars bustle as students line the block to enter Brothers Bar and Grill or patronize the Greek’s Pizzeria sidewalk vendor. Reverberations of music and loud chatter are felt from several streets away until the early morning when crowds disperse and The Village readies itself for another day.

Looking at The Village today, it’s hard to imagine the space without student activity. Yet student life did not always define the shopping network of The Village. Up to the 1970s, Village life revolved around the adjoining Riverside-Normal City (RNC) Neighborhood. Residents came to The Village for groceries, clothing, and recreation. Then, as Ball State grew and student rentals dominated neighborhood demographics, The Village transitioned from a family and community-based retail area to a student-oriented shopping space. As a result, the communal identity of The Village changed and continues to shift as students, homeowners, and entrepreneurs pursue a balance of local flair, corporate development, and university involvement.

History

Older residents of the RNC neighborhood remember The Village with a golden nostalgia, reflecting on the locally owned businesses that looked after the wider community’s social and material welfare. Between the 1930s and the 1970s, the shops remained relatively stable and offered a wide array of services. Bashara’s grocery store, on the corner of University and Dill, was a hotspot for neighborhood families’ everyday needs. Howard Schroeder, who grew up in The Village in the ‘30s and ‘40s, described the store displays as “immaculate,” and remembers the personable grocer who welcomed his customers. Other shops–such as Smittie’s Menswear, Schroeder’s shoes, and the Collegienne department store–carried upscale clothing and household goods.[1] These businesses thrived with customers from the neighborhood who were, for the most part, upper-middle class professionals.[2]

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 The Uni-Mart. (Photo courtesy of Lost Muncie’s Facebook page, May 13, 2015.)

Alongside the high-class shops were small-town novelties attracting students from both the College and the Emerson elementary school. The Uni-Mart restaurant was known for its reasonably priced home-cooked meals.[3] The Sweet Shop sold ice cream, candy, and sodas to crowds after basketball games, college students on dates, and neighborhood kids after school.[4] Even Dalby’s Drug Store is remembered with some charm, as rumors circulate about the eccentric pharmacist who was lenient with his prescriptions.[5] Many of these shops grew up in the post-war boom of the late ‘40s and ‘50s. Muncie resident Ricka Smith remembers the time as one of abundant economic and industrial development, saying some thought of Muncie as a “Magic City.”[6]

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                          Sweet Shop Interior (Photo courtesy of Lost Muncie’s Facebook Page, July 27, 2015).

The Village, though, did not only offer economic opportunity, but created social connection as well. Barbara Kaufman, whose parents ran the Sweet Shop in the ‘50s, misses the “community feeling” of the old Village, saying “everyone looked out for each other.” According to her, and others, thecommunity feeling did not outlast the local businesses. The Sweet Shop, along with other family owned businesses, closed down in the late ‘60s. The gas stations went out of business in the ‘70s.[7] Families moved away from the neighborhood and were replaced by students from the University. Local business owners retired and closed up their shops. The Village businesses and their clientele were in a state of transition.

Ball State officially gained University status in 1965 and this changed the relationship between the university and the community. The Village changed dramatically.[8] As the off-campus student population in the RNC neighborhood increased, Village merchants realized that their survival relied on catering to this new demographic. They could no longer rely on the steady income from professional and family customers. Students were reliable during the school year, but during breaks and the summer months ill-prepared businesses suffered. Many went out of business due to misunderstanding the variables of a student consumer base.[9] The 1970s-80s were a time of faltering transition–some businesses flourished while others came and went.

Student Influence

The Village was revived in the 1990s, when the Wise family began to heavily invest in The Village to revitalize it into a cohesive student-oriented shopping center.  The Wises, along with others in the community, banded together to rebuild The Village into the space that students interact with today. Long-time Muncie residents, both Jerry and Deb Wise wanted to see The Village succeed. Jerry Wise owned a construction company responsible for buildings on Ball State’s campus and renovations in The Village. His wife, Deb Wise, owned Network Property Services, a development company that specialized in student rentals.[10] Deb Wise resurrected The Village Merchant’s association and dreamt of shops that would all “march to the same sheet of music.”[11] Others saw catering to students as a chance to bring business back from what they’d lost to the Muncie Mall.[12] The Wises worked to unify The Village aesthetically and economically, and their efforts can be seen in The Village today. Deteriorating buildings were demolished and rebuilt with new businesses.[13] The city repaired sidewalks and installed new streetlamps.[14] Even their son, Scott Wise, started his own restaurant catering to students—Scotty’s Brewhouse.[15] These efforts do not go unnoticed. All the students interviewed for this project cited proximity to The Village as a benefit to living in the neighborhood. The student connection to The Village, and by proxy the RNC neighborhood, is why Heather Williams, RNC neighborhood resident and Neighborhood Association member, says that students and The Village create a “stronger relationship between the neighborhood and the university.” Although the identity of The Village changed with the influx of students, the shopping area’s student-oriented mission offers many opportunities for both the neighborhood and the university.

Not everyone sees the students as a benefit to the community and The Village, though, as students are written off as disturbances to the neighborhood identity. Some residents are aggravated and frightened by noisy, drunk students on weekends.[16] Others feel that Ball State is encroaching on the neighborhood, and that The Village’s attempted revival is a detriment to the history of the RNC neighborhood.[17] Most lament the transient nature of the student population. Students live in the neighborhood for a few years, get their degrees, and leave. There is no time to become invested in the community.[18] Village shops also feel pressure when students leave for breaks, and this contributes to a high turnover rate for businesses who can’t keep up with students.[19] Students may upset the peace and stability of The Village and the RNC neighborhood, but they are most of the customers and renters, so the neighborhood and The Village are left to adapt.

The Village adapted to the new demographics by catering to the University students, but the shops and developers also seem to have a certain student in mind—the wealthy student. Some remark that they see The Village as becoming “classier” with new upscale apartments.[20] Jeff Eads, a resident of the RNC neighborhood and President of the RNC Neighborhood Association, comments that unlike the cheap bars he encountered as a Ball State undergraduate, Scotty’s Brewhouse and Brother’s Bar and Grill appeal to young professionals. Darcie Johnson, a student working at Let’s Spoon, also remarked that she sees “rich students” in The Village. She and her friends spend less time in The Village because Brother’s is expensive, Insomnia Cookies is overpriced, and the Cup prices rival Starbucks. The Village is accessible to almost any Ball State student, but it seems that not just any student can afford what The Village offers.

Village Promenade

The upgrades and price increases in The Village are a common occurrence for university commercial areas. Susan Hyatt, an anthropology professor at Indiana University, has studied these examples of university shopping area renovation and proposes that these trends are forms of gentrification–the process of rebuilding and displacement that coincides with the influx of affluent people into deteriorating areas. Universities, Hyatt argues, invest in these shopping areas to “create spaces attractive to white, middle-and-upper class consumers.” In the process, the history of the area is neglected for the sake of capital and university aesthetics.[21] Other researchers, such as Darren Smith, characterize this as “studentification,” a subset of gentrification caused by students’ unique economic influence. Smith sees these “classy” student-oriented business areas as spaces where upper-class students learn consuming habits that will qualify them as “gentrifiers” after they leave university.[22] Whether The Village is an example of gentrification or not, it overtly caters to students who have money, and this approach, for better or for worse, influences how Village life and the neighborhood are perceived.

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 A view of the Promenade apartments. Photo courtesy of HWC Engineering, 2016. Accessed Dec. 8, 2016.

This preference for wealthier students is clear with the installation of The Village Promenade, but the controversy generated by the new apartments revolves around the intimidating structure and the impact on neighborhood history and community. The Promenade opened August, 2014, offering students upscale housing. The apartments span the two south-eastern blocks of The Village, and include amenities such as a rooftop pooland patio, a fitness center, study rooms, and a multimedia center. The ground floor rents space to Village businesses such as Let’s Spoon and Brothers Bar and Grill. The complex also includes a parking garage, which was one reason why the city invested in the Promenade. The city hoped that the parking would bring more business to The Village, so that “… every day [could] look like a Friday night as far as activity level.”[23] Parking benefits and upscale amenities are not unique to the Promenade, but are part of a larger trend in student housing. In general, the demand for a wide array of amenities has risen as student’s expectations rise in conjunction with universities’ investments in housing as a marketing tool. As universities compete for incoming students, and struggle to find space and funding to house their own student populations, many partner with private developers to build luxury student housing.[24] Jo Ann Gora herself, President of Ball State University from 2004 to 2014, also favored the Promenade construction at the time.[25] Yet, while the city and the university supported the Promenade, some neighborhood residents resisted the construction and many express mixed feelings about the resulting structure.

Although some residents concede that the Promenade has its benefits for The Village, many are put off by the corporate nature and large structure of the complex that they feel is out of place in The Village environment. The Promenade was built where the older, vacant Village strip mall once stood. Bill Morgan, RNC resident and previous President of the Neighborhood Association, and Jeff Eads both remark that The Village is better off with the modern Promenade than with deteriorating shops. Bruce Geelhoed, a Ball State history professor who researches Middletown studies and Muncie history, also remarks that even the average student is better off because the Promenade raised the standard for student rentals and many landlords renovated their properties to compete with the new apartments.

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 To the left stands the historic Village architecture. On the right is the new Promenade apartment complex. (Photo by Kathryn Powell)

The complex, though, came at a cost to some residents who argue that it “changed the fabric of the neighborhood.” One interviewee claims that the Promenade looks like a “contemporary warehouse.” The four-story building stands above the rest of The Village, and Jeffrey Lauer, a Ball State architecture student in 2013, worries in an editorial for the Daily News that the modern design will pressure the city to renovate rather than preserve the historic Village properties.[26] Beth Messner, a resident of the RNC neighborhood and Ball State professor, remarked that The Village “felt neighborhoodlike because of the small, intimate storefronts, but that changed with the Promenade being put up.” The Promenade apartments overwhelm The Village’s architecture and aggravates residents who are trying to find a balance between a neighborhood environment and university expansion.

Corporate Influence

The Village Promenade complex is the starkest, but not the only, example of another social change—the influx of national corporations and chains in Muncie—that influenced commercial opportunity and neighborhood identity in The Village. The Promenade apartments are managed by American Campus Housing, based out of Austin Texas. RNC resident Scottie Limbird sees the complex as another example of large corporate entities “after a quick buck.” The Promenade  was not the first corporation to compete with The Village, though. In 1967 the Muncie Mall went up near McGalliard, drawing business away from both downtown Muncie and The Village.[27] Target and Wal-mart followed soon after. Howard Schroeder remarked that, combined with the lack of parking in The Village, “when shopping centers came in like the Muncie Mall, that was the demise of The Village as a community shopping center.”

Although the “demise” of community shopping was more likely a long-time coming with the gradual increase of student rentals, the new superstores contributed to the struggle of independent businesses in The Village. A study by the Journal of Urban Economics speaks to this trend of Box-Stores moving into communities and competing with small businesses. Researchers found that small businesses who offer the same services as the Box-Stores often suffer. The Village grocery and clothing stores were probably hit hardest by the new competition. Superstores also promote business in neighboring restaurants and shops that offer specialty goods because they attract new consumers from a wider area who stop to eat when they shop.[28] In Muncie’s case, this could explain the success of the McGalliard strip of restaurants and stores that run between the Box-Stores (Wal-Mart, Target, Muncie Mall etc.). The introduction of box-stores in Muncie and the thriving McGalliard strip only added to the difficulties that The Village already faced with catering to the changing demographics of the RNC.

Another reason for the success of McGalliard chains compared to The Village could be the lack of accessible parking in The Village. Without accessible parking on the street, it is difficult for businesses to bring in the consumers they need to pay their property taxes.[29] The parking issue spills over into the neighborhood, as some residents complain about the noise level and lack of street parking caused by Village customers parking in the neighborhood streets.[30] The Promenade was supposedly built to combat this issue of parking, but its success is debatable. Some say that locals assume the parking garage is reserved for renters.[31] Others argue that locals are not happy about having to pay to park.[32] Howard Schroeder attributes the decline of The Village as a community shopping center to the lax zoning laws that allowed businesses to build without adding parking spaces.[33] Local businesses are hesitant to move to The Village once they consider the parking issue.

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                                   Parking signs warn customers to park carefully in The Village. (Photo by Kathryn Powell).

The Caffeinery, a local coffee shop currently in downtown Muncie, cites the lack of parking and family customers as the reason they abandoned plans to expand in The Village. Derek Tuluwitzky, board member of the Muncie Historical Society and former neighborhood resident for seven years, says that “What we [The Village] need is accessible parking that’s free and that’s on the street.” The Village needs parking space to attract community customers and local businesses, but proximity to the university makes it difficult to find space to build spacious lots. Since Muncie locals currently do not find it worth the trouble to pay to park in the Promenade garage, the future for parking in The Village does not look promising.

The Village turned to the students for business in part as a response to the corporations on McGalliard and out of a need to attract pedestrian customers. In doing so, national chains such as Subway and Insomnia Cookies joined the ranks of The Village shops. Still, current business owners in The Village would like to see more independent ownership and fewer franchises, and Heather Williams hopes that strengthening The Village will return business from the McGalliard chains. For now, The Village clientele is a majority student-based, and it remains to be seen if The Village will pull business back from the franchises and supercenters on McGalliard. Beth Messner is supportive of Village businesses, independent or not, saying “I’d love to see every store front filled, because I think that adds a great deal of vitality to our neighborhood.” Whatever happens, the corporations in and around The Village changed the way city consumers interacted with local businesses and neighborhoods. 

University Projects

Future development in The Village, as seen with the construction of the Promenade apartment complex, will likely serve Ball State’s interests. The Village’s connection to campus makes the strip a prime location for university development projects, such as the McKinley Commons project, proposed in April, 2012. The plan was to build a facility to house a four-story residence hall, hotel, conference center and two restaurants.[34] Ball State President Jo Ann Gora promoted the project as an immersive learning program for hospitality students who would learn to manage the facility and work directly with professionals in the field.[35] The project was to be constructed on the north-east corner of University and McKinley—where Hiatt Printing, a local printing service, once stood. Chris Hiatt operated the business for thirty years until Ball State decided to negotiate for the property. At first, he was reluctant to give up his “prime” location on campus, but after several offers and threats of eminent domain (Ball State later deferred from this option), Ball State acquired the property. According to Hiatt, although he “fought tooth and nail for years against Ball State … for the reason of restoration, [he] ultimately agreed on to give them the property.”[36] Ball State argued restoration and eminent domain because, according to Gora in a press release,  McKinley Commons was a potential “anchor for The Village.”[37]

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 A model of McKinley Commons. The project is currently on hold under the new Ball State administration. (Image courtesy of University Marketing and Communications, featured in Evie Lichtenwalter, “Finding a common ground.” Ball State Daily News (Muncie IN). April 26, 2012).

John Fallon, Ball State’s vice president for economic development and community engagement, remarked that “It [McKinley Commons] is important to the city because it could be the anchor of development in the revitalization of The Village.”[38] When the Gora administration ended, though, the property remained undeveloped. As of January, 2016,  the university officially put the project on hold, as they are “reviewing the financial viability of the facility under current market conditions.”[39] Ball State still owns the property, but it remains to be seen how or if it will ever be developed, and this development could have implications for the future character and success of The Village.

Final Thoughts

Corporations and franchises combined with students and university involvement changed the nature of The Village from a family-oriented retail area to a student-oriented shopping space. The changing demographics of the RNC neighborhood influenced business in The Village, and The Village in turn provided an incentive for students to rent in the neighborhood. Tensions between preserving historical roots and garnering modern businesses also govern the politics and layout of The Village today. The university, neighborhood residents, and business owners, are still in contention over the identity of The Village, especially with relation to the neighborhood. It remains to be seen how future developments such as the McKinley Commons, a Ball State living-learning community project on the edge of The Village, will influence the tone and reception of The Village. Will The Village become an extension of the university? Will popular chain restaurants dominate the shops? Or, will the history be preserved by local business owners? For now, residents remain hopeful that The Village can serve as a point of connection between the neighborhood and the university, and that the businesses will bring in new locals and students to contribute to RNC neighborhood’s distinct identity.

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Photo credits

Sketches

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All sketches by Simran Bhinder


Notes

[1] Shirley and Ted Brewer, interviewed by Barbara Dickensheets, Oct. 29, 2016.

[2] Linda Gregory, interviewed by Barbara Dickensheets, Oct. 29, 2016.

[3] Ricka Smith, comment on Jeff Koenker’s Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Aug. 8, 2016 (8:36 p.m), accessed December 6, 2016.

[4] Barbara Kaufman, interviewed by Kathryn Powell, Oct. 29, 2016.

[5] John McGauley, “The Village looks different after thirty years,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie IN), April 24, 1989.

[6] Ricka Smith, comment on Jeff Koenker’s Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Aug. 14, 2014, (10:20 p.m.), accessed Dec. 2, 2016.

[7] Derek Edwards, interview by Mia Nickelson, Oct. 17, 2016

[8] “Convocation Celebrates University Recognition,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), February 12, 1965.

[9] Gedemer, Tricia and Mcnamee, Julia, “Summer brings long, lackluster business days to increasingly volatile Village environment,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), June 17, 1992.

[10] Ellen Collier, “Decades of difference: off-campus Village transitions from community space to student-focused district,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), March 22, 2015.

[11] Marty Schladen. “Developing takes a village.” Muncie Star Press (Muncie IN), Sep. 28, 1997

[12] Suzanne Krewson, “Improvements made by Wise Builders Inc.” The Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), July 30, 1990.

[13] Bill Morgan, interviewed by Amber Janzen, Nov. 9, 2016.

[14] Holly Raver, “Costly Village improvements in planning stage,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie IN), November 21, 1989.

[15] Miller Kern. “Scott reflects on unlikely journey to restaurant ownership,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), Dec. 7, 2015.

[16] Morgan Fuller, interviewed by Mia Nickelson, Oct. 31, 2016; Jim and Cathy Lee, interviewed by Abby Clark, Oct. 16, 2016.; Derek Edwards, interview by Mia Nickelson, Oct. 17, 2016

[17] Bob Hartley, interviewed by Katie Harper, Simran Bhinder, and Savannah Meyers, Oct. 19, 2016.

[18] Whitney Stump, interviewed by Amber Janzen, Oct. 29, 2016.; Beth Messner, interviewed by Savannah Meyers, Nov. 9, 2016.

[19] Derek Edwards, interview by Mia Nickelson, Oct. 17, 2016; Tricia Gedemer and Julia McNamee “Summer brings long, lackluster business days to increasingly volatile Village environment,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie IN), June 17, 1992.

[20] John Kraft, interviewed by Iesha Alspaugh, Oct. 16, 2016.

[21] Susan Brin Hyatt, “Universities and neoliberal models of urban development: using ethnographic fieldwork to understand the ‘Death and Rebirth of North Central Philadelphia,’” Learning and Teaching 3, no 3 (2010): 6-31

[22] Darren P. Smith, “’Studentification ication’: the gentrification factory?” in Gentrification in a global context: the new urban colonialism, ed. by Rowland Atkinson and Gary Bridge (London: Routledge 2005).

[23] Laura Arwood, “Parking in Village set to double,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), Sept. 16, 2014.

[24] Claire La Roche, Mary Flanigan and Kenneth Copeland Jr., “Student Housing: Trends, Preferences and Needs,” Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3, no 10 (Oct. 2010): 45- 50

[25] Bill Morgan, interviewed by Amber Janzen, Nov. 9, 2016.

[26] Jeffrey Lauer, “Changes to disrupt Village psyche,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), Oct. 2, 2013.

[27] Bruce Geelhoed, interviewed by Mia Nickelson, Oct. 24, 2016; Bill Morgan, interviewed by Amber Janzen, Nov. 9, 2016.

[28] John Haltiwanger et al., “Mom-and-Pop meet Big-Box: Complements or substitutes?” Journal of Urban Economics, 67 (2010)

[29] Beth Messner, interviewed by Savannah Meyers, Nov. 9, 2016.

[30] Jim and Cathy Lee, interviewed by Abby Clark, Oct. 16, 2016.

[31] Derek Tulowitzky, interviewed by Katie Harper. Nov. 3, 2016.

[32] Beth Messner, interviewed by Savannah Meyers, Nov. 9, 2016.

[33] Howard Schroeder, interviewed by Kathryn Powell, Oct. 29, 2016.

[34] Rachel Podnar. “BSU defers eminent domain.” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN), June 10, 2013.

[35] Evie Lichtenwalter. “Finding a common ground.” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN). April 26, 2012.

[36] Michelle Kaufman. “University behind schedule on McKinley Commons construction,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN). Jan. 13, 2016.

[37] Christopher Stephens. “The 2-year, $450K deal,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN). May 19, 2014.

[38] Evie Lichtenwalter. “Finding a common ground.” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN). April 26, 2012.

[39] Michelle Kaufman. “University behind schedule on McKinley Commons construction,” Ball State Daily News (Muncie, IN). Jan. 13, 2016.


Bibliography

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Edwards, Derek, interview by Mia Nickelson, Oct. 17, 2016.

Fuller, Morgan. interviewed by Mia Nickelson, Oct. 31, 2016

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Lee, Jim and Cathy, interviewed by Abby Clark, Oct. 16, 2016.

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Limbird, Scottie, interviewed by Katie Harper, Oct. 25, 2016.

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Morgan, Bill, interviewed by Amber Janzen, Nov. 9, 2016.

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Stump, Whitney, interviewed by Amber Janzen, Oct. 29, 2016.


Photo Credits

In order of appearance. All photos last accessed Dec. 12, 2016.

Collegienne Shops on University, Early 1970s” Posted by Larry Broadwater in his “Village and Ball State” Album, crediting Jeff Koenker. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. March 31, 2012. 11:09 p.m.

Collegienne Shops artistic rendering Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. March 29, 2016. 7:27 p.m.

Collegienne Shops photo ad Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. March 8, 2015. 9:04 p.m.

Students march through The Village in 1968” Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. July 19, 2015. 10:11 a.m.

Old Village shops. Minnetrista Heritage Collection, Muncie, IN.

Old Village vs new Village” Broadwater, Larry. . Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. July 20, 2015. 9:12 p.m.

Village Uni-Mart in the late 1940s” Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Aug. 14, 2014. 12:24 p.m.

Uni-Mart interior and staff, 1940s” Koenker, Jeff. Comment on a Facebook post in the “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. August 14, 2014. 5:19 p.m.

“Uni-Mart employee” Minnetrista Heritage Collection. Muncie, IN.

Village Marathon gas station in 1956” Koenker, Jeff. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Nov. 27. 7:24 a.m.

Standard Station in The Village” Koenker, Jeff. Comment on “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. July 23, 2015. 2:28 p.m.

“Two gas stations in The Village” Minnetrista Heritage Collection. Muncie, IN.

“Dalby’s Drug Store” Minnetrista Heritage Collection. Muncie, IN.

Dalby’s Drug Store over the years” Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Nov. 24, 2016. 7:24 p.m.

College Pastry Shop in the early 1930s” Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Dec. 3, 2014. 8:24 p.m.

Beshara’s Food Market in the 1930s” Harrold, Gayle. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Nov. 22, 2016. 4:31 p.m.

Beshara’s interior, 1930s” Harrold, Gayle. Facebook comment on “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Nov. 23, 2016. 8:39 p.m.

Beshara’s 1930s” Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. April 25, 2014. 6:38 a.m.

Greeks Pizza in 2013” Koenker, Jeff. Facebook Comment on post in “Lost Muncie’s” Facebook page. Nov. 23, 2016 at 10:13 p.m.

The Village Pub 1981” Larry Broadwater. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. Oct. 9, 2012. 12:04 p.m.

A view of The Village, 1971” Koenker, Jeff. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. July 30, 2015. 8:52 a.m.

A view of The Village, 1988” Broadwater, Larry. Facebook post. “Lost Muncie” Facebook page. November 13, 2011. 8:37 a.m.

“A view of The Village, 2016” Powell, Kathryn. Dec. 5, 2016.

“The Village, 2016” Powell, Kathryn. Dec. 5, 2016.

“Be Here Now, a local bar that often features live music” Powell, Kathryn. Dec. 5, 2016.

“Parking warnings, 2016”  Powell, Kathryn. Dec. 5, 2016.

“Murals behind Village shops” Powell, Kathryn. Dec. 5, 2016.

“Village Green Records, a music and records shop” Powell, Kathryn. Dec. 5, 2016.